2012年7月1日 星期日

0701 2012 日晴

校園散步 汗濕透  咖哩泛605 yy附帳

the Supreme Court 2012 /胡適1958 慨嘆中華民國的大法官人數過多 2012回歸憲法「大法官交錯任期制」之運作



The Radical Supreme Court

The five conservative justices have made the Supreme Court an aggressive political actor. No wonder the court's standing in public opinion polls is dreadful.

Op-Ed Columnist
Taking One for the Country

The leadership of Chief Justice Roberts could teach us all a lesson or two.

胡適慨嘆中華民國的大法官人數遠比美國的多多 不合理

19581210 星期三
…….先生看見頌平,突然問起大法官的人數 (十三人) ,接著說:「這麼多的法官,除掉史尚寬一個人認識之外,其餘諸人的名字,連我也不知道。這些大法官是否當過法官?大法官是解釋憲法的,多麼重要!在美國,始終只有九位大法官,都是法學的權威。我們的人數也太多些。」

史尚寬1898年-1970年),安徽桐城人,中華民國著名法学家,中国历史上第一部民法典的起草者之一,曾任中華民國立法委員、中華民國司法院第二届大法官(1958 ...

Immigration Law Is Debated on Eve of Court Hearing

The author of Arizona’s law expanding the police’s powers for immigration enforcement defended it in a Senate hearing a day before the Supreme Court was set to hear a case on its constitutionality.印象中這樁擴權是二年內的事 美國最高法院效率不錯


 回歸憲法「大法官交錯任期制」之運作 司法院正副院長應即日解職

謝謝Ken Su和 David Hsu 等多位朋友的約會

現在 TSMC副董事長曾先生,事後發表他的筆記(『電子所月刊』),
曾先生捐給清華的"榮譽講座"    多次被何丙郁先生的回憶錄提及.(詳下文的書)

 長壽者健康之道都只能姑且聽之  陳立夫 101歲
更晚 陳立夫說過他每天沐浴時全身按摩.......可能是長生之道   見成人遊戲場,
( 我更欣賞李濟先生講的胡適在外地洗玩澡    必親自清理浴盆等的故事   李濟 )
何炳棣  95歲追思會中 了解他有一套科學補品    可是其他院士有的效法之  據言"彷彿有效不過.....)

李約瑟的長壽秘方,參考: 何丙郁《學思歷程的回憶:科學、人文、李約瑟》 203   李自認為是人蔘之功,可是作者認為是李要寫完《中國科學與文明醫藥篇》《中國科學與文明結論篇》的堅強意志,推動他體內的求生機能。

Vehicle data recorders

Watching y

1942/1/9 來吃飯並談至夜深的英國人R. H. Tawney (1880-1962) 是名家 -- 他80歲生日宴會是在英國的下議院舉行的世界各界都有代表參與
很可惜.   胡適之先生完全沒有記他倆談些什麼
  • R. H. Tawney
    Richard Henry Tawney (30 November 1880 – 16 January 1962) was an English economic ... the R. H. Tawney Economic History society at the London ...
    21 KB (3,007 words) - 16:45, 8 February 2011
 30年代 Tawney到中國訪問二次
1932  出版 Land and Labour in China by R. H. Tawney《中國的土地與勞力》
 這本國聯的報告 張漢裕教授為什麼數十年之後還要翻譯它了

The Sun, the Genome, and the Internet資 21世紀三事 Freeman Dyson

21世紀三事 台北:商務 贈送品The Sun, the Genome, and the Internet資 21世紀三事 Free...

在提到Richard Tawney 是有問題的
Tawney, R. H. (1880-1962).

Tawney made a significant impact in four interrelated roles, as Christian socialist, social philosopher, educationalist, and economic historian. In 1908 he became the first tutorial class teacher in an agreement between the Workers' Educational Association and Oxford University. The classes he took became renowned for their excellence. As a socialist, he wrote Secondary Education for All (1922), which informed Labour policy for a generation. His two most influential books, The Acquisitive Society (1921) and Equality (1931), exercised a profound influence on socialists in Britain and abroad and anticipated the welfare state. Tawney was also a professor of economic history from 1931, having made his reputation with Religion and the Rise of Capitalism (1926).

他喪禮採用聖詠 (Psalms作傳的人說是選得很恰當的

Land and Labour in China by R. H. Tawney《中國的土地與勞力》

our driving

A proposed law in America would require cars to have “black box” data recorders. Many already have them

WHEN investigators try to discover what caused an airliner to crash, the first thing they hope to find are the flight data recorders, popularly known as “black boxes”. These devices, usually painted bright orange, record how the aircraft was flying and the last 30 minutes or so of conversation in the cockpit. The information extracted from them has helped to determine the cause of air crashes and to improve aviation safety. Similar recording systems are fitted to some trains, ships and lorries. Now a bill in America’s Congress seeks to make it compulsory for data recorders to be fitted to all cars by 2015.
The idea is that data captured by the recorders would give investigators and road-safety officials a better understanding of how certain crashes come about. It would also help police and insurance companies to apportion blame. What many drivers may not realise, however, is that most cars already record data if they are involved in an accident, and that this information can be read by anyone with the right kit.

Rapid inflation
The technology that America’s lawmakers want to be made compulsory was originally intended for another purpose. With the widespread adoption of airbags, which began in the late 1980s, General Motors (GM), an airbag pioneer, wanted better analysis of how airbags were deployed, to improve their reliability and effectiveness. To obtain the data it required, GM began fitting a small memory unit to the electronic module that triggers the airbags. Ford, Chrysler and other carmakers followed suit. Around 80% of the cars sold in America now have these devices, called event data recorders (EDRs).
The quickest way to find out if a new car is fitted with an EDR is to check the small print in the owner’s manual. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in America made disclosure compulsory for cars built from late 2010. It also ruled that, if fitted, the EDRs had to be made more durable to protect data in the event of a crash, and the agency defined standards for the type of information being recorded. The European Union, too, has been looking into the widespread deployment of EDRs in cars.
Typically an EDR will record data from sensors contained in the airbag module itself and from other vehicle systems. As cars have deployed more electronics, the amount of recordable data has grown. It can include forward and sideways acceleration and deceleration, vehicle speed, engine speed and steering inputs. The data can also show if the accelerator was being pressed, if the brakes were being applied and if the seat belts were being worn. If there is a crash and the airbags are fired, the data covering the preceding five seconds or so are stored in memory.
To interrogate the EDR, an investigator uses a laptop connected to a data-retrieval device, which in turn is plugged into the vehicle’s diagnostics socket or, if the car is badly damaged, directly into the EDR itself. Bosch, a German manufacturer of car parts, claims to be the world leader in this field but declined to be interviewed for this report. It supplies data-retrieval equipment to police forces, accident investigators, insurance companies and various government agencies.
Five seconds of data may not seem much, but they can amount to several pages of information. Matthew Brach, a crash investigator with Brach Engineering, in Indiana, says the data can be compared with physical evidence, such as tyre marks on the road, the position the vehicles came to rest and the extent of crushing, to produce a highly accurate reconstruction of the events leading up to a collision.
A number of prosecutions have already been brought against drivers in America and Europe using information extracted from EDRs, mostly to establish a vehicle’s speed at the time of an accident. Data from EDRs were also used by America’s Department of Transportation in an investigation into the possibility of electronic interference causing unintended acceleration of Toyota cars. Although two mechanical causes (sticky accelerators and a problem with floor mats) had been identified, electromagnetic interference was ruled out.
The data monitored by an EDR are stored only if the airbags go off. But some may also record up to three previous “events”, such as heavy braking, in which the system thought a crash might be imminent. There are also third-party recording systems available for cars and commercial vehicles, which are often used by fleet operators, including police forces. Some insurance companies offer “black-box policies”. Britain’s Automobile Association, a motoring-services organisation, offers one to inexperienced drivers who agree to have a system fitted to their cars. Using cellphone networks and GPS navigation, it compiles regular reports to show drivers if they are breaking speed limits, braking too hard or taking corners too quickly. Good drivers get reduced premiums.
GM’s OnStar motoring-assistance service taps directly into EDRs. It automatically alerts emergency services if the airbags are deployed. As well as providing the location of the crash and its potential severity, GM is working with the University of Michigan to develop algorithms to predict the types of injuries sustained.
One thing the American legislation will try to clear up is who owns EDR data. One version of the bill, already passed by the Senate, states that they are not owned by carmakers but the car owner, or in the case of a leased vehicle, the lessee. This means ownership of the data (along with the car) could pass to an insurance company in the event of a car being written off. The bill, however, does say data may be retrieved by another person, such as a police officer, with the permission of the owner or with a court order. Privacy advocates will be watching closely. Two years after implementation, the bill says Congress should consider its impact on road safety and individual privacy. If lives are saved and privacy respected, then data recorders in cars will be here to stay.