校園散步 汗濕透 咖哩泛605 yy附帳
the Supreme Court 2012 /胡適1958 慨嘆中華民國的大法官人數過多 2012回歸憲法「大法官交錯任期制」之運作
The Radical Supreme Court
The five conservative justices have made the Supreme Court an aggressive political actor. No wonder the court's standing in public opinion polls is dreadful.
Taking One for the Country
By THOMAS L. FRIEDMAN
The leadership of Chief Justice Roberts could teach us all a lesson or two.
…….先生看見頌平，突然問起大法官的人數 (十三人) ，接著說：「這麼多的法官，除掉史尚寬一個人認識之外，其餘諸人的名字，連我也不知道。這些大法官是否當過法官？大法官是解釋憲法的，多麼重要！在美國，始終只有九位大法官，都是法學的權威。我們的人數也太多些。」
By JULIA PRESTONThe author of Arizona’s law expanding the police’s powers for immigration enforcement defended it in a Senate hearing a day before the Supreme Court was set to hear a case on its constitutionality.印象中這樁擴權是二年內的事 美國最高法院效率不錯
謝謝Ken Su和 David Hsu 等多位朋友的約會
令我印象深刻。唐津 一（からつ はじめ、1919年 - ）著作 害人
長壽者健康之道都只能姑且聽之 陳立夫 101歲
( 我更欣賞李濟先生講的胡適在外地洗玩澡 必親自清理浴盆等的故事 李濟 )
何炳棣 95歲追思會中 了解他有一套科學補品 可是其他院士有的效法之 據言"彷彿有效不過.....)
Vehicle data recorders
Watching y1942/1/9 來吃飯並談至夜深的英國人R. H. Tawney (1880-1962) 是名家 -- 他80歲生日宴會是在英國的下議院舉行的世界各界都有代表參與
- R. H. Tawney Richard Henry Tawney (30 November 1880 – 16 January 1962) was an English economic ... the R. H. Tawney Economic History society at the London ...21 KB (3,007 words) - 16:45, 8 February 2011
1932 出版 Land and Labour in China by R. H. Tawney《中國的土地與勞力》
The Sun, the Genome, and the Internet資 21世紀三事 Freeman Dyson21世紀三事 台北:商務 贈送品The Sun, the Genome, and the Internet資 21世紀三事 Free...
在提到Richard Tawney 是有問題的
Tawney, R. H. (1880-1962).
Tawney made a significant impact in four interrelated roles, as Christian socialist, social philosopher, educationalist, and economic historian. In 1908 he became the first tutorial class teacher in an agreement between the Workers' Educational Association and Oxford University. The classes he took became renowned for their excellence. As a socialist, he wrote Secondary Education for All (1922), which informed Labour policy for a generation. His two most influential books, The Acquisitive Society (1921) and Equality (1931), exercised a profound influence on socialists in Britain and abroad and anticipated the welfare state. Tawney was also a professor of economic history from 1931, having made his reputation with Religion and the Rise of Capitalism (1926).
A proposed law in America would require cars to have “black box” data recorders. Many already have them
The idea is that data captured by the recorders would give investigators and road-safety officials a better understanding of how certain crashes come about. It would also help police and insurance companies to apportion blame. What many drivers may not realise, however, is that most cars already record data if they are involved in an accident, and that this information can be read by anyone with the right kit.
The technology that America’s lawmakers want to be made compulsory was originally intended for another purpose. With the widespread adoption of airbags, which began in the late 1980s, General Motors (GM), an airbag pioneer, wanted better analysis of how airbags were deployed, to improve their reliability and effectiveness. To obtain the data it required, GM began fitting a small memory unit to the electronic module that triggers the airbags. Ford, Chrysler and other carmakers followed suit. Around 80% of the cars sold in America now have these devices, called event data recorders (EDRs).
The quickest way to find out if a new car is fitted with an EDR is to check the small print in the owner’s manual. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in America made disclosure compulsory for cars built from late 2010. It also ruled that, if fitted, the EDRs had to be made more durable to protect data in the event of a crash, and the agency defined standards for the type of information being recorded. The European Union, too, has been looking into the widespread deployment of EDRs in cars.
Typically an EDR will record data from sensors contained in the airbag module itself and from other vehicle systems. As cars have deployed more electronics, the amount of recordable data has grown. It can include forward and sideways acceleration and deceleration, vehicle speed, engine speed and steering inputs. The data can also show if the accelerator was being pressed, if the brakes were being applied and if the seat belts were being worn. If there is a crash and the airbags are fired, the data covering the preceding five seconds or so are stored in memory.
To interrogate the EDR, an investigator uses a laptop connected to a data-retrieval device, which in turn is plugged into the vehicle’s diagnostics socket or, if the car is badly damaged, directly into the EDR itself. Bosch, a German manufacturer of car parts, claims to be the world leader in this field but declined to be interviewed for this report. It supplies data-retrieval equipment to police forces, accident investigators, insurance companies and various government agencies.
Five seconds of data may not seem much, but they can amount to several pages of information. Matthew Brach, a crash investigator with Brach Engineering, in Indiana, says the data can be compared with physical evidence, such as tyre marks on the road, the position the vehicles came to rest and the extent of crushing, to produce a highly accurate reconstruction of the events leading up to a collision.
A number of prosecutions have already been brought against drivers in America and Europe using information extracted from EDRs, mostly to establish a vehicle’s speed at the time of an accident. Data from EDRs were also used by America’s Department of Transportation in an investigation into the possibility of electronic interference causing unintended acceleration of Toyota cars. Although two mechanical causes (sticky accelerators and a problem with floor mats) had been identified, electromagnetic interference was ruled out.
The data monitored by an EDR are stored only if the airbags go off. But some may also record up to three previous “events”, such as heavy braking, in which the system thought a crash might be imminent. There are also third-party recording systems available for cars and commercial vehicles, which are often used by fleet operators, including police forces. Some insurance companies offer “black-box policies”. Britain’s Automobile Association, a motoring-services organisation, offers one to inexperienced drivers who agree to have a system fitted to their cars. Using cellphone networks and GPS navigation, it compiles regular reports to show drivers if they are breaking speed limits, braking too hard or taking corners too quickly. Good drivers get reduced premiums.
GM’s OnStar motoring-assistance service taps directly into EDRs. It automatically alerts emergency services if the airbags are deployed. As well as providing the location of the crash and its potential severity, GM is working with the University of Michigan to develop algorithms to predict the types of injuries sustained.
One thing the American legislation will try to clear up is who owns EDR data. One version of the bill, already passed by the Senate, states that they are not owned by carmakers but the car owner, or in the case of a leased vehicle, the lessee. This means ownership of the data (along with the car) could pass to an insurance company in the event of a car being written off. The bill, however, does say data may be retrieved by another person, such as a police officer, with the permission of the owner or with a court order. Privacy advocates will be watching closely. Two years after implementation, the bill says Congress should consider its impact on road safety and individual privacy. If lives are saved and privacy respected, then data recorders in cars will be here to stay.