2007年4月12日 星期四

0412 2007

主編:鍾漢清 (hanching chung) 時間: 2007/04/1 2

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譯人故事(二十二):葉維廉( 2004))

讀葉維廉<董陽孜的逍遙世界 ---墨舞舞人>( 2004.10.14中國時報)作者說明為「一九三七年生,美國普林斯頓大學比較文學哲學博士,

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2007/4/13
今天葉先生在台大開始三次演講。談『翻譯: 神思的機遇』。它其實是自傳。
據主辦人說, 演講稿會整理發表在 " 台灣文學研究..."
我是唯一的提問者。問他大陸全集之反應。他說他是以 "理論家" 之身份為他們所接受。

******---- 林南(Nan Lin)演講「從全球脈絡看中國的資本主義」(大約)。重點談政府角色的凸顯;歷史軌跡;社會 -文化因素;理性。

我提「合法性問題;全面腐敗;環境破壞;中央集權與自由市場之矛盾。經濟指標只是一面向」

基本上中共政權有危機意識。

---- Re :實驗以驗實?

潘老師

如果可能,我建議你在文章內建 key words【多向文本,這是第二代 Simon U的「小讀者」對 HYPERTEXT的翻譯】,方便(未來)讀者。而且盡量附英文,方便有心進修的朋友。

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這篇其實相當重要,值得進一步更深入地談【當然我是指像你這樣的專家】。我想你或許可以推薦其他可進一步參考的書籍。

Jean Piaget 在日內瓦大學作了許多「發生認識論」領域的實驗。十來本翻譯的中文書,或許可以管窺其實驗方法。還有相關的方法論和統計問題。譬如說, 過去七八十年對於「抽煙」相關實驗之推論。

Statistical methods and scientific inference by RA Fisher - 1956 – London

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篇名讓我想起台大的某些老師的偏好用法。所以我去查一下「國立編譯館 學術名詞資訊網」,發現與 experiment 相關多詞約七百多條。(我猜)其中至少八成用「實驗」,二成用「試驗」。

hc 2007/4/12 12:54 回應

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HC

謝謝建議。文章裡多附點原文,沒有問題,只要不致干擾閱讀即可;至於建立「關鍵詞」,並使用 hypertext,則要多花些時間,只能一點一點來。

從事實驗工作者,多是從學徒開始做 bench work,然後一點點學習實驗設計、結果分析、報告撰寫等週邊「技術」;實驗理論,一般是不大涉獵的。只有到了一定年紀,視茫手抖,不能從事第一線的實驗工作時,才會多想想所謂「哲學性」 (philosophical) 問題。你要我多談點理論,只怕力不從心。

Experiment 的一般譯法是「動物實驗」及「人體試驗」,大概是想避免引起「在人身上做實驗」的不良聯想。近代以人為對象進行有違倫理、甚至殘酷的實驗,首推二次世界大戰期間,某些德國及日本醫生在猶太人及中國人身上的作為;就連美國也有以黑人梅毒患者進行的觀察性實驗。由於「人體實驗」有過這段黑暗歷史,也才有目前三階段的「人體試驗」準則出現。幾年前我與人合譯過一本談自體實驗的書:「誰先來?」 (Who Goes First?),由天下文化出版,可以參考。

震澤 2007/4/12 21:03 回應

健康----

肥胖基因

《泰晤士報》、《每日電訊報》和《衛報》頭版均報道了科學家發現導致肥胖的基因,將有助治療肥胖症和糖尿病。

英國科學家在《科學期刊》發表的報告指出,一個 FTO基因變異導致體重增加 1.2公斤﹔有兩個FTO 變異增加三公斤。 《泰晤士報》指出,科學界早已知道肥胖與遺傳有關,並找出導致罕見的嚴重過胖的基因變異,但科學家一直找不到導致一般肥胖的基因。儘管體重由基因決定,但運動和均衡飲食仍然是控制體重的最佳方法。

**** 蔡筱雯╱綜合外電報導

美國學者宣布發現治療癌症的革命性方法,經由快速篩檢基因,配合核醣核酸干擾( RNA interference,或稱 RNAi)技術,阻斷保護腫瘤細胞的基因,可使化療藥物對癌細胞的效力增強為原來的一萬倍,未來化療藥物的劑量可望大幅度減少,也減輕不舒適的副作用。

美國德州大學西南醫學中心的學者懷特( Michael White)表示,他的實驗針對化療常用的藥物與肺癌細胞之間的反應,其中以紫杉醇反應最強烈,小組先從人類 21000個基因篩檢出 87種基因,發現它們關係癌細胞對藥物的反應,接著只要採用核醣核酸干擾技術,阻斷這些基因,讓它們「靜默」,停止分裂增生,癌細胞少了保護,採用原先萬分之一的藥量,就能殺死肺癌細胞,但不會影響正常的細胞。讓病患苦惱的噁心、嘔吐、落髮、肝腎受損等副作用,也可大幅減輕。

去年諾貝爾醫學獎得主、美國學者費爾( Andrew Z. Fire)與梅洛( Craig C. Mello),就是因發現核醣核酸干擾機制,可抑制造成疾病的異常基因,而獲得殊榮。

懷特的小組則是活用基因圖與核醣核酸干擾技術的先驅之一,一年半前開放的 RNAi資料庫( RNAi Library)也幫上大忙, RNAi資料庫中有多種設計過的分子組合,能分別把不同基因阻斷,而他們應用這座資料庫,在六周內快速找出問題基因,並將其封鎖阻斷。

懷特表示,未來數年將致力於其他化療藥物的反應研究,希望能在 10年內研發效果更強的新藥,其他學者則認為,今後一定有更多核醣核酸干擾機制的應用,發揮在癌症治療的領域。

Wolfowitz(世銀行長)醜聞

《金融時報》頭版報道了世界銀行行長沃爾福威茨面臨辭職壓力的消息。

報道說,沃爾福威茨承認他為一名跟他有親密關係的女性世銀雇員取得調升和加薪。 沃爾福威茨對他犯的錯誤道歉。 世銀規定上司與下屬不能有私人關係。

《金融時報》報道,沃爾福威茨上任不久後【沃爾福威茨曾擔任美國副國防部長一職】,與他有私人關係的這名女性雇員被調到美國國務院工作,她調職後升了職級以及年薪大幅增加。

《金融時報》報道說,據他們的消息來源顯示,世銀董事會的規則委員會確認了調升的決定,但沒有批准工資和聘用條件。 報道說,世界銀行工會質疑沃爾福威茨有徇私之嫌,認為他已失去誠信,應該辭職。

世銀董事會正討論他的去留問題。

World Bank mulls Wolfowitz's fate

Wolfowitz's apology

The board of the World Bank has adjourned a meeting to discuss the fate of its president, Paul Wolfowitz.

Mr Wolfowitz has faced calls for his resignation over the promotion and pay of his Libyan-born partner, Shaha Riza.

He has apologised for his involvement in the negotiations and said he will accept any decision taken by the board.

Earlier, the board said it never gave its approval for the wage rise for Ms Riza ordered by Mr Wolfowitz, despite claims to the contrary by his aides.

The board said the World Bank's ethics committee "had not been involved in the discussions with the concerned member of staff".

Ms Riza's promotion and pay rise has attracted strong criticism from staff within the Bank.

It has weakened Mr Wolfowitz at a time when he is facing controversy over his anti-corruption drive that has led him to suspend aid to some countries.

Ms Riza was moved to the state department on secondment when he took the World Bank's top job in 2005, but her salary was still paid by the Bank.

'Uncharted waters'

Mr Wolfowitz at first had denied that he was involved in the decision about her salary.

"In hindsight, I wish I had trusted my original instincts and kept myself out of the negotiations. I made a mistake, for which I am sorry," Mr Wolfowitz said on Thursday.

He said he had been in "uncharted waters" in his new job and would follow the recommendations proposed by the board.

"I will accept any remedies they propose," he said.

The Bank's staff association says the pay rises and promotions Ms Riza received were "grossly out of line" with the World Bank's staff rules.

"The president must acknowledge that his conduct has compromised the integrity and effectiveness of the World Bank Group," staff association representative Alison Cave said in remarks presented during a staff meeting on the matter.

Trust

She added that his actions had destroyed the staff's trust in his leadership.

The controversy comes ahead of joint World Bank and IMF spring meetings.

Mr Wolfowitz - formerly US deputy secretary of defence - has adopted a fiercely anti-corruption stance.

The latest furore threatens to undermine his personal campaign to combat corruption and poor governance.

Ms Riza had been a high-ranking communications employee at the bank working in the Middle East section.

When Mr Wolfowitz took over at the Bank in mid-2005, Ms Riza - then a World Bank employee for eight years - was transferred to work for the US state department, to avoid any conflict of interest.

But rapid rises in her tax-free World Bank salary to about $193,000 - more than the $186,000 Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice receives before tax - have aroused ire among other Bank employees.

Aid

While facing press questions about the case, Mr Wolfowitz has tried to shift focus back to the bank's remit of fighting global poverty.

He said the world's richest nations had given 5% less aid over the past 12 months.

"We have yet to see evidence of significant new flows translate into real resources for development programmes on the ground," he said.

Ministers and trade leaders from the 185-nation organisation are to meet on Saturday and Sunday in Washington.

The agenda will include issues including fighting diseases and the state of the world economy.

日本

Sony and Toshiba lock horns over 'organic' flat-screen TVs

Fujiya case

General Contractors (Japanese )

Perceived Quality 感知的品質

聯合國

learning curve noun [C] 學習曲線(裝配飛機等等,越來越駕輕就熟、更快;將數量 VS速度 等作圖就是學習曲線。陡斜率代表快速進入狀況,學習壓力大。)
the rate of someone's progress in learning a new skill:
It's a pretty steep learning curve when you're thrown into a job with no prior experience.

(from Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary)

In the deep end?

Steep learning curve for new UN chief's first 100 days

美國

*****

brush (BUSHES) noun [U] US
small low bushes or the rough land they grow on, or brushwood:
We spotted a jackrabbit hidden in the brush.
The dry weather has increased the risk of brush fires.

(from Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary)

TOP STORY

UNHORSED JOCKEY
Behind the Fall of Imus,
A Digital Brush Fire

In a Blur, Watchdogs, Blogs, Email, Spur Radio Host's Firing

By BROOKS BARNES, EMILY STEEL and SARAH MCBRIDE

CBS canceled the "Imus in the Morning Show" amid an escalating outcry over his remark about the Rutgers women's basketball team. Watchdogs, blogs and emails helped spur the firing

伊拉克首都巴格達的議會大樓爆炸

《獨立報》以 "血腥的信息:無處安全" 的標題來形容伊拉克目前的情況。

伊拉克議會大樓位於巴格達的 "綠區 ",即保安最嚴密的伊拉克地方,議會大樓更加是綠區中守衛最森嚴的地帶。導致數十人受傷,八人死亡,包括兩名伊拉克議員。

《衛報》報道說美國官員承認伊拉克現在無一處安全。

《國際先驅論壇報》報道,爆炸看來是由炸彈引起的,但不清楚兇徒是由自殺炸彈手還是有人預先埋下炸彈。

伊拉克巴格達國會大樓昨天驚傳自殺炸彈攻擊,造成 8 20傷,其中至少兩名死者為國會議員。此外昨天稍早,位於巴格達北部的阿沙拉費亞大橋也遭卡車炸彈攻擊,被炸成兩截,至少造成 10 26傷。
位於巴格達美軍嚴密控管的綠區國會大樓在昨天午餐時間過後不久,突然傳出巨大爆炸聲。國會官員賈巴爾表示,據初步調查,一名自殺炸彈客將炸彈綁在腰部,進入餐廳後引爆。

爆炸地點位於員工餐廳的收銀台,距離大廳不遠,「爆炸威力驚人,我看到火光,有好多人受傷,窗戶玻璃都被震碎了」,另一名在附近的官員則說:「我們聽到餐廳傳出爆炸聲,跑去一看,發現大廳冒出濃煙,許多人躺在地面的血泊中。」

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