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古典與現實之間 (杜正勝) 杜先生會去請教錢穆先生
- Horizon (BBC) 在世界bbc 贊助廠商為 DuPont 因為有8000萬美國顧客看bbc America 昨天在台大就業博覽會看到該公司新一代 FBI Traces Trail Of Spy Ring To China 杜邦公司商業間諜案追根溯...
除非你是德國專家 說莎士比亞是德國的 .....
說到德國 我早上在書庫碰到一本書 Ibsen and Hitler
說 我的奮鬥 某章某節大抄人民公敵某幕某景
me我好像讀過 沒什內容 題目口氣大而已
「嗚呼！人生如朝露，百年行樂奚足數；安得讀盡古今書，行盡天下路，受盡人間苦，使我猛覺悟！」吳先生十餘歲時，為清華留美預備學校之學生，以校中當局開 除某生，吳先生與其他數同學，共為之鳴不平，當局乃併加以開除。然其他數同學，後皆具悔過書得復學，吳先生獨謂無過可悔，遂流落北平，為人傭工。後又轉往 上海書局，任校對。自此歷盡苦辛，終徒步過三峽返川。其友吳宓、湯用彤等，既由清華資送至美國留學，乃共各以其留學公費之若干，供吳先生自學之用。吳先生 遂年方弱冠，而詩文皆斐然可觀，有聲于時；年不及三十，而被聘為西北大學、成都大學及重慶大學教授。吳先生讀中西之詩，而以杜甫為宗。思想則為純儒。吳先 生孝于其母，而其妻與母不和，時有難言之痛。其友吳宓嘗離婚，亦嘗貽書勸吳先生離婚；而吳先生答以詩曰：「我輩持身關世運，夫婦之倫不可輕言離異也。」吳 先生于西北大學任教時，適逢吳佩孚與劉鎮華之戰，西安圍城者數月，居民皆以草根樹皮為食。吳先生時在西安城中，每日皆正衣冠以待斃。又在重慶大學任教時， 見大學士習敗壤，遂辭去教職，回故里辨江津中學，時江津中學之學生多信共產主義，叫囂狂肆，不可終日，而吳先生以身作則，不一年而校風丕轉。然吳先生亦以 勞瘁過度，病歿任上，年才三十六也。吳先生之詩，今存數百首，世多知之。而其志之所期，則在為中華民族，作三部史詩。第一部寫大禹治水，第二部寫孔子杏壇 設教，第三部寫創建民國之先烈之革命。惜所志未遂，而人間亦終不得誦此一史詩矣。吳先生與先父交，吾少年時嘗親見其為人，精誠惻怛，使人一見不忘；而其詩 中之句，吾亦多尚能憶。上文所引之數句，既足狀吳先生之一生，而尤足資吾之警惕，故尤喜誦之。
吾嘗以吾一生之所懷抱，與吳先生此數句詩之意對勘。砌自謂吾一生素未嘗有人生行樂之想，亦可謂嘗行萬里路，試讀萬卷書。然讀書未能念念在得聖賢之心，行路 未嘗念念在于開拓自家之胸襟，尤未能如吳先生之志在歷盡人生之艱險，受盡人間之苦難，以歸于覺悟。悠悠一世，行年將六十。今回顧此一生之所經，在求學之 時，既未嘗有不得已而輟學之事。離校之后，亦無所如不合之感。吾平生固未嘗志在溫飽，然亦未嘗有凍餒之憂，且隨處皆得人緣之助，未嘗有失業之慮。計三十餘 年來，薪資所得，除自養一身以外，兼有餘財，以奉養吾母及諸妹弟，亦嘗使我所識窮乏者，有以得我。南去香港後，并置有數百尺之樓宇一座，存書近萬卷，使吾 即在大學退休以後，亦有屋可居，有書可讀。吾又嘗自幸不特有賢父母，吾之妹弟，對我皆友愛備至。吾之妻，更與吾之母及妹弟，協睦無間，使吾未嘗有室家不和 之慮。又吾自入中學大學及離校以後，皆樂得良師益友，相與扶持。今日尚存之師友，更多能全其始終之交，二三十年如一日。則以吾之一生，與吳芳吉先生相較， 誠可謂邀天之眷，未嘗有吳先生所經歷之苦難，則欲有吳先生之猛覺悟，亦難矣。（一九六七年二月十五日）
吾自念吾一生所經歷，其中固亦多可傷痛之事。如吾父之歿於鄉中時，家人無一在側，吾母病逝蘇州，而吾亦不得奔喪。十七年來，羈旅異城，更時懷家國之痛。然 此可傷痛之事，皆出于悲情之不容已，非同逼惱之苦難，使人不得不忍所不能忍，亦使人難于更發大心，以求向上之覺悟煮若言吾生所受之逼惱之苦，唯在二十歲左 右時，身體特多病。腦、肺、腸、胃、腎，皆無不病。吾年十四五歲，即已有為學以希賢希聖之志。于二十歲左右，更自負不凡；乃時嘆人之不我知，恒不免歸于憤 世疾俗之心，故煩惱重重，屢欲自狀。然此時吾對人生之事之悟會，亦最多。吾二十二歲，先父逝世，吾更自念：吾身為長子，對吾家之責，更無旁貸，吾 一身之 病，乃自此而逐漸消失。又吾二十一歲，即已以文字自見于世，而世莫我知之感，亦與年俱減。及至今日，雖時有對世俗之憤疾，然好名之心，已漸淡泊。此則半由 己略為世所知，半由知「千秋萬歲名，寂寞身後事」，亦原不足戀之故。夜深人靜，偶念吾十八九歲時之煩惱重重，輒覺可笑。然三十餘年來，于義理時有悟會，亦 未必是真正之覺悟。前歲讀朱子書，見朱子晚年恒以韓愈所言之「聰明不及于前時，道德日負于初心」自嘆，更忽焉有警。唯吾去年罹目疾，纏綿病楊，已將一載， 今猶未愈。此可謂歷一人生之苦難。在此一年中，吾乃更于吾之一生，試顧往而瞻來，于人生之事，較有一真覺悟，而于昔年所讀之書，亦頗有勘驗印證，其中亦有 足資吾今後與他人之警惕者。故今就所能憶及者，述吾在病中所經之心情之曲折，及覺悟者之所在，于後。
然吾之虛憍慢易之情之所根，其隱約存于吾之心者，尚有更深于此上所言者。此則初原于吾在少年時之願望、抱負、及若干突如其來之經驗。此諸經驗，亦初實未嘗 不可謂其自天而降。憶吾少年時，吾父母以客居成都，家中不設祖宗神位。吾父母嘗習禪，亦不拜佛。吾嘗從吾父母至佛道諸教廟宇，及杜甫諸葛武侯祠堂，吾父母 亦只命吾對塑像或畫像，點頭作禮為止。吾家固素不尚跪拜之禮，亦無事神之習也。吾年十二，始讀封神演義。此小說之書，所述者乃神仙間之戰爭之事，原無宗教 情調。吾當時讀後，亦嘗欲效之為一書，並臆造種種神仙、寶貝之名，亦初未信神佛之為實有也。然一日吾忽覺此滿天之神佛，應為實有。遂一人在帳中，對四方之 神佛禮拜。又嘗以毛筆恭楷書吾所願望得此滿天神佛之祐助之事，於一紙之上，更深藏之於一小紅箱之底。此願望大率不出由對吾之一身至吾家，及對國泰民安之願 望之類。自茲以後，吾即恒自謂，凡吾真有所求，神必許我。憶一日與小學中之數同學，共往武侯祠。其時祠中常有駐兵，游人恒不得入，吾當時即對神靈表願望 曰：此祠中今日無駐兵。及至武侯祠，而果不見駐兵，遂大喜。吾當時之表願望於神靈之事，其可笑大率類此。然吾之信有神靈之念，則初不由外來，乃純為吾當時 之所自發而更密存之於心底者。吾今欲自述吾後來所時有之對超越的世界之存在之感受與思維，及其他種種道德的向上心情，亦必溯原於此吾十二歲以前之事也。
今欲述吾之道德的向上心情，吾不能自諱，其生發之早。憶吾年十四五，已讀先秦諸子書。吾父更授我以理學宗傳，吾家時住重慶郊外之大溪溝，吾嘗一人讀書於三 層樓上，樓有迴廊，可遠眺四野。一日吾讀理學宗傳至陸象山十餘歲時，即悟宇宙即吾心之理，當時即驀然生一憤悱之感，而不能自已。於吾十五歲之生日，吾更遙 念先聖之德，更念吾於華夏文化之重光，當有以自任。遂有二詩，自述吾志。其一之前四句為：「孔子十五志於學，吾今忽忽年相若。孔子七十道中庸，吾又何能自 菲薄？」下四句為「孔子雖生知，我今良知又何缺？聖賢可學在人為，何論天賦優還劣？」另一首之前四句為「泰山何崔巍，長江何浩蕩！鬱鬱中華民，文化藏光 芒。」最後結以「舍我其誰來，一揭此寶藏！」此則純為少年狂妄之情。然今思之，亦未為大病。以吾中年後之心情，與此相較，則毋寧謂其乃日趨於頹墮。於朱子 晚年之時引韓愈之言「聰明不及於前時，道德日負於初心。」吾亦今而後，方知言之深切也。
至於吾對超越世界之存在之感受與體驗，則始於吾十七歲，吾父送吾乘船至北平讀書之一經驗。憶吾父既送吾上船，當夜即宿於船側之一囤船之上，吾初固不感父子 相別之悲也。及至次晨，船之輪機轉動，與囤船相距漸遠，乃頓覺一離別之悲。然當吾方動吾一人之悲之際，忽念古往今來，人間之父子兄弟夫婦之同有此離別之悲 者，不知凡幾，而吾一人之悲，即頓化為悲此人間之有離別，更化為一無限之悲感；此心之淒動，益不能自已，既自內出而生於吾心，亦若自天而降於己。吾亦以是 而知人生自有一超越而無私之性情，能自然流露，是乃人生之至珍之物也。
吾少年時，更有之同類經驗，為吾之所不忘者，尚有二三事。其一為吾於十七歲赴北平就學，時正當國民革命潮流澎湃之日。吾亦嘗覺此革命為一莊嚴神聖之事。當 時之青年之所崇拜者，即為孫中山先生。一日吾聞北平之民國大學，將重映中山先生在廣州時之紀錄片，吾遂往觀。憶其時與眾人共坐於一露天之廣場之上，夜涼如 水，繁星滿天。吾乃一面看銀幕所映中山先生與其革命同志共同行動之電影，一面遙望此繁星之在天。一念之間，忽感此中山先生與其同志，皆唯居此地球之上；而 此地球則為一甚小之行星，與此天上無盡之繁星相較，此地球誠太空之一塵之不若。何以此一塵不若之地球上之志士仁人，如今之銀幕所見者，必灑熱血，擲頭顱， 以成仁取義，作此革命救人之事業？此誠不可解。宇宙，至大也；人，至小也。人至小，而人之仁義之心，則又至大也。大小之間，何矛盾之若是？吾念此而生大惶 惑、大悲感。當時之心念之轉動，迴環於滿天之繁星、所見之銀幕、及露天之廣場之間，其種種之波盪與曲折，曾記之於日記，而此日記已不存，今亦不復更憶。唯 憶當時之心念轉動，皆與悲側之情相俱，直至電影終場，吾之淚未嘗離目，若與天上繁星，共晶瑩凄切而已。
吾少年時再一同類之經驗，使吾一生不忘者，乃十九歲時，望月食時之所感。時吾在南京中大求學。一夕聞有月食，遂出門至校旁之一池塘畔觀之。忽見池畔老幼居 民，皆持土罐、鐵罐；及見月初食，遂群舉木棒擊罐。吾初不知其故，繼乃知此乃因俗傳日月之食由於天狗食之，故人共擊器成聲，意在使天狗聞之而趨避。此乃人 之所以救日月之光之道也。吾固知日月之食，不關天狗之事。果天狗能食日月於天上，則此人間之擊器成聲，又何能為？亦愚不可及也。然吾於當時未嘗笑此眾人之 愚。吾惟念此諸老幼居民、與天上之日月，相距不幾千萬里，今何以必關心此日月之晦明，而以其區區之手，擊此區區之器，發此區區之聲，而望其能驅天狗，而復 日月之明？此果皆因無此日月之明，則人之事皆不能成，而大災害將至乎？吾意則不以為盡然。今試問彼擊器之人，果皆是為慮災害將至，方擊器以驅天狗，而復日 月之光？毋亦不忍彼日月之晦盲，即欲復其光輝耳。即彼為慮災害將至，然後欲復日月之光者，其念人間災害之原，在天上之日月，而寄情於日月，亦見此人之情之 能自充塞於天地之間也。吾遂於「此人之情寄在此原為無情之天上之日月之處」，生一大感動。此正與吾上文所言之念人類之志士仁人之所為，而生之感動無殊。此 感動中之種種意念，今亦同不能詳憶。自此事後，吾有同類之感動者，尚有若干次。但吾在中年以後，知識日多，人事日繁，此類感動乃日少。及今於日月之食，竟 漠然無感。則吾今之病目疾，其來亦固有由矣。
吾上所述少年時之數事中之心情，皆就其純由自發，不由父母師友之教誨啟發以得之而說。至於其由父母師友之教誨啟發以得者，當別說，非今所及。而凡此所謂純 由自發之心情，當其發時，吾恒即多少感其如從天而降，非由意識之安排，而如為一超越意識、超越世界之呈露。然吾初固未用此「天」或「超越意識」或「超越世 界」之諸名，以自解釋吾之此諸心情也。又吾最富於上述諸心情之時，乃吾年二十左右之時。此時亦正為吾個人之其他煩惱最重之時。此其他煩惱如不見知於人等， 皆純由一己之私所發，然亦與吾之超個人之心情，如上所述者之發，互為因緣，乃使吾之精神，似日進而又日退。此尤為天下之至詭異而不可測者也。
所謂由我之一己之私所發之煩惱，可與我之超個人之心情，互為因緣者，蓋由於吾少年時之超個人之心情之發，一面純由自發，一面亦只對自己而現，而只屬於吾個 人之秘密。此諸心情，初非與人交談之所生，亦不必更告之於人。而吾少年時在小學中學之同學，亦實罕有足以語此者，吾乃以此而恒有孤獨之感。在吾之孤獨中， 吾固可時有一超越普遍之悲憫之情，以念及人類、眾生與世界。然此悲憫之情，乃自上而下，以覆蓋於吾所思之人類、眾生及世界之上，則又未嘗離於吾之孤獨之心 之外也。吾之同儕，不能知吾孤獨中之所思，則吾儘可於獨居之時，自與天地萬物為一體，而視吾之同儕，為不足以知我者，而若與我為異類。吾益超凡絕俗，乃益 見吾之同儕之凡俗。吾之傲慢，遂港滋而暗長。憶二十歲時，嘗夜夢一人獨經地下，岩石層層，隨身而破；更獨上登於天，天門戶戶，隨步而開；醒時嘗為詩以紀 之，有「穿迴地壁層層破，叩擊天門步步開」之句。而吾初不知其皆出於吾之自負能超凡絕俗之傲慢心也。吾更不知此傲慢心之正可與個人之好勝、好名之私欲煩 惱，互為因緣；而使吾之心之發自天理者，終亦為濟我之私欲之資，乃使吾之煩惱亦重於吾之同儕之上。然吾其時，則固不能自覺其故，而亦禾知所以自救之道也。
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Federal agents were searching Walter and Christina Liew's home here last July for evidence of corporate espionage when a safe deposit box key caught their attention. They asked Ms. Liew if she knew where the bank was located. Her husband told her in Chinese to say she didn't, according to an account later given by federal prosecutors.
An agent who understood Chinese picked up on the exchange and followed Ms. Liew as she left the house, drove to an Oakland bank and tried to empty a safe deposit box the key fit. The box, according to prosecutors, contained documents outlining a more than decadelong plot to steal DuPont Co. corporate secrets and sell them to a Chinese government-owned company.
The Liews now are at the center of a case that the Justice Department says marks the first time U.S. officials have filed criminal espionage charges against a state-owned foreign company. The company, Pangang Group, is fighting the charges, which were unveiled a month ago in San Francisco. The Liews were charged with conspiring to steal trade secrets and sell them to the Chinese, charges they deny.
The allegations involve an obscure chemical and a 50-year-old technology that is hardly cutting edge, but one DuPont has wanted, for decades, to keep secret. The case, described by people intimate with its details and revealed by documents reviewed by The Wall Street Journal, provides a rare view inside a stepped-up drive the federal government has mounted to combat organized efforts by foreign governments to steal U.S. intellectual property.
'What we've learned since the end of the Cold War is that when it comes to the economy, our adversaries and even our allies will spy on us when it's in their economic interest,' said Frank Figliuzzi, the Federal Bureau of Investigation's assistant director for counterintelligence. He wouldn't comment on the DuPont-related case but said that, speaking generally, the FBI is doubling down on corporate-espionage investigations because despite years of attempts by the bureau to raise awareness at companies and prosecute trade-secret theft, the problem is growing.
Since passage of a law in 1996 giving the Justice Department wide powers to prosecute corporate espionage, only about a dozen cases have been brought. The number of cases has remained low even as Department officials publicly announced attempted crackdowns on corporate spying before, including one in 2007. Convictions are hard to get because they require tying companies directly to foreign governments, said Patrick Rowan, a former national-security prosecutor.
Lisa Monaco, assistant U.S. attorney general for national security, who also wouldn't comment on the DuPont-related case, said that while espionage is traditionally thought of as nations trying to steal military or diplomatic secrets, 'today's espionage also involves nation states like China focused on stealing research and development, sensitive technology, corporate trade secrets and other materials to advance their economic and military capabilities.'
China regularly denies that its government or state-owned companies engage in concerted efforts at corporate espionage. On a broader level, China aims at gathering already-discovered technical know-how to build global competitors through legitimate means such as joint ventures. More controversially, China has been insisting that foreign companies hand over technology as the price of market access. Within China, many foreign companies are so concerned about intellectual-property theft that they avoid bringing in their cutting-edge technology and manufacturing processes.
Federal law-enforcement officials contend many U.S. companies do too little to protect their interests, failing to monitor employees and rarely bringing problems to federal agents for fear of bad publicity.
That is not the case with DuPont. It hires former high-ranking federal agents to keep tabs on its intellectual property and notifies federal officials of problems. The Justice Department has won at least four DuPont-related cases in recent years, among them convictions in 2009 of a former DuPont employee for stealing information related to Kevlar high-strength fabric and giving it to a Korean company, and of another for stealing trade secrets related to light-emitting diodes and taking them to China.
DuPont tries as hard to protect long-established technologies as new ones. It was more than 50 years ago that the company laid the groundwork for an efficient process to produce titanium dioxide, a white pigment used in paints and other products, according to court filings. The company honed the process through the years, becoming the world's largest producer of the chemical. To keep its complex production process secret, DuPont allowed most employees to know about only individual pieces of it.
Chinese state-owned companies, including Pangang, a conglomerate based in Panzhihua in Sichuan Province, talked for years with DuPont about opening a joint-venture titanium plant in China, say people familiar with the matter, but a deal was never worked out.
In the 1990s, according to documents confiscated from Mr. Liew in Orinda last summer and since filed in federal district court in San Francisco, Pangang and Chinese-government officials started asking businessmen to procure DuPont's proprietary titanium-production methods.
A spokesman for the Chinese embassy in Washington called that assertion 'groundless,' saying: 'There would not be any kind of instruction or request to Chinese businessmen. They behave on their own behalf.' He said the DuPont case is a business dispute and the businessmen involved 'have no connection to the Chinese government.'
Pangang didn't respond to requests for comment. A former chairman of the company denied it dealt in stolen intellectual property.
One document taken in the search of the Liews' home and filed with the court is a letter Mr. Liew addressed in 2004 to Pangang officials, in which he stated that a high-ranking Chinese Communist Party leader asked him in 1991 to bring titanium-dioxide-making secrets back to China.
'Some years ago China let me know that she urgently needed titanium white by chlorination technology,' the letter reads. 'After many years of follow-up research and application, my company has possession and mastery of the complete DuPont way.'
In an affidavit filed in court, Mr. Liew─a 54-year-old Malaysian-born naturalized U.S. citizen who worked in Silicon Valley as an electrical engineer─said, 'Those documents are not accurate or reliable.' Mr. Liew said he had misrepresented facts, including his employment history and relationships with Chinese officials.
A lawyer for Mr. Liew said during a bail proceeding that his client hadn't told the truth in some documents cited by the government, including business pitches that claimed ties to Chinese Communist Party officials.
A former Pangang executive to whom the letter was addressed, Hong Jibi, said he was unfamiliar with Mr. Liew. 'I don't know him, I never met him, I never dealt with him, and I never got any letter from him,' Mr. Hong said in Beijing.
Over the past 15 years, according to court filings and people familiar with the matter, Mr. Liew hired several former DuPont employees knowledgeable about specific pieces of the titanium process─a practice that isn't illegal.
One was Tim Spitler, an engineer in Reno, Nev., with a reputation for great titanium expertise. He told a friend around 2003 that he was working with Mr. Liew to cobble together titanium-making know-how to sell to a Chinese company, the friend said in an interview. A lawyer for Mr. Spitler said he eventually agreed to cooperate with investigators.
Another was Tze Chao, a 36-year DuPont veteran. Mr. Chao─who last week pleaded guilty to conspiracy to commit economic espionage─said in a statement filed in court that shortly after his 2002 retirement, Pangang officials asked him to provide DuPont titanium-dioxide-making information. Mr. Chao said he hooked up with Mr. Liew after learning Mr. Liew was trying to sell similar information to Pangang.
Prosecutors have filed in court letters purportedly written by Mr. Liew in which he says he has sold DuPont titanium-oxide technology to various companies affiliated with the Chinese government.
Mr. Liew's companies received more than $12 million from a Pangang subsidiary between 2009 and 2011 for his efforts, prosecutors alleged in their indictment of the Liews. The couple, prosecutors charged, 'wired millions of dollars in proceeds from Pangang Group to Christina Liew's relatives' in China.
In 2010, DuPont received an anonymous letter saying that Mr. Liew and one of his employees, a Bay Area man who was also employed by Chevron Corp. , had sold DuPont information to a Chinese company, according to court filings.
Chevron security officials began an investigation after hearing from DuPont, court filings say, and searched the computer of the employee, named John Liu. They found documents related to DuPont technology, court filings said. Mr. Liu's lawyer noted that his client hasn't been charged. According to people familiar with the case, Mr. Liu has cooperated with prosecutors.
Chevron last March forwarded information found on Mr. Liu's computer to DuPont, which in turn brought it to FBI agents in San Francisco, said people familiar with the case.
DuPont last spring also filed a civil suit against Mr. Liew in San Francisco federal court, seeking damages for alleged theft of trade secrets. Mr. Liew's response denied that he and his partners possessed DuPont trade secrets and said there was 'no uniqueness' to its titanium-dioxide process. He filed a counterclaim alleging that DuPont had improperly obtained his trade secrets. The suit is pending.
DuPont said the case 'demonstrates that DuPont reacts swiftly and vigorously when its trade secrets are stolen. When we learned of the suspected theft, we investigated further until we had sufficient information to file suit. We also notified law enforcement.'
On July 19, FBI agents searched the Liews' gray house in Orinda, a hilly suburb about 25 miles east of San Francisco. It was during that search that an agent trailed Ms. Liew to a safe deposit box that contained documents and disk drives, prosecutors wrote last month in a court filing opposing bail for Mr. Liew. The Liews were arrested on charges of obstructing their investigation.
FBI agents soon learned that two senior Pangang executives were in California and preparing to meet with the Liews, according to lawyers familiar with the case. They included a top company executive, Zhuang Kai. Agents confiscated the Chinese executives' passports and told them to stay in the hotel in Alameda, Calif., as material witnesses while the investigation continued.
Federal agents began translating thousands of pages of Chinese-language documents confiscated from the Liews and following the leads generated.
The investigation led them to Mr. Chao, the DuPont retiree. Agents searched Mr. Chao's house in Delaware in October, according to a statement he made as part of his guilty plea. While they found some DuPont-related documents, said a person familiar with the case, they missed others.
A few days later, Mr. Chao's court filing says, he took those others into his yard and burned them. But the information the FBI did find was enough for the 77-year-old to decide to cooperate with investigators, court filings show.
Prosecutors granted immunity to the two Pangang executives visiting California so they would talk with prosecutors with their American lawyers present. In late fall prosecutors decided they could no longer hold the men as witnesses and let them return to China. Lawyers for both men say their clients have done nothing wrong.
Prosecutors went ahead with preparations for a case against others, and made plans to ask a grand jury to hand up an indictment on a Wednesday in early January, said people familiar with the case. But days before the scheduled grand jury meeting, one intended witness, Mr. Spitler, the Reno-area engineer with the wide knowledge of the titanium dioxide process, shot himself. His family hasn't returned calls requesting comment.
Prosecutors regrouped, and in early February obtained indictments that included Mr. and Ms. Liew; Pangang Group and three affiliates; a midlevel executive of a Pangang affiliate in China for whom the indictment said an arrest warrant had been issued; and a former DuPont engineer named Robert Maegerle. All were charged with conspiracy to commit economic espionage except for Mr. Maegerle, who was charged only with conspiracy to commit theft of trade secrets. He pleaded not guilty on Thursday.
Mr. Chao, in pleading guilty in San Francisco federal court a week ago to conspiracy to commit economic espionage, said he had been led astray after officials from the People's Republic of China 'overtly appealed to my Chinese ethnicity and asked me to work for the good of the PRC.'
Pangang Group's lawyers have said they believe the prosecutors must go through the Chinese judicial system to serve the indictment and are fighting the matter in court. They haven't filed a plea.
Ms. Liew pleaded not guilty Thursday. Mr. Liew intends to do so as well, his lawyer said. Mr. Liew remains in an Alameda County jail, where he has been since the July raid on his home in Orinda.